Cryotherapy may be a destructive treatment that use liquid nitrogen .The freezing and thawing process causes cell wall and membranes destruction and death.
nitrogen may be applied either with a cotton bud aur more effectively, with a Sapne gun. A big variety of conditions may be treated but it essential for the proper diagnosis to be made first , if necessary and diagnostic biopsy. cryotherapy mustn’t use to treat melanocytic naevi. Benign lesions, like viral warts and basal cell papillomas , respond well and cryotherapy may be effective for actinic keratoses , Browne’s disease or superficial non-melanoma carcinoma. Malignant indications require more vigorous treatment usually with two freeze-thaw cycles , and this can be normally meted out in secondary care. consideredable inflammation , blistering and pigmentary change , particularly hypopigmentation, can occur ۔
laser therapy involves treatment with monochromatic lights . skin components such as haemoglobin and melanin , absorb specific wavelengths and electromagnetic radiation, and these wavelengths can therefore be wont to destroy these targets selectively and to treat certain skin disorders. The latter also can be used for hair removeal if the hair is pigmented .Light delivery in brief pulses restricts damage to the treated site .
The carbonic acid gas laser emits infrared lights that’s absorbed by water in tissues and may therefore be used for destructive purpose. the depth of effect is controlled, specified the carbonic acid gas laser is widely employed for resurfacing in photorejuvenation or acne scarring .Significant morbidity is related to this destructive laser and general anesthesia is required.
photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely employed in dermatology, predominantly for actinic keratoses , Bowen’s disease and superficial BCC. Topical ‘porphyrin’ PDT is the foremost common type: it involves the appliance of a porphyrin pro-
Drug to the lesion , which is obsessed and converted by the cell’s haem cycle to a photosensitiser , protoporphyrin IX . This I’d then photochemically activated by visible (usually red) light within the presence of oxygen, which cases the assembly of reactive oxygen species, inflammation and destruction of treated tissue. The photosensitiser is obsessed relatively selectively in disease skin , and also inflammation and adverse affects the conventional skin and minimised. PDT is that the effective for superficial non-melanoma carcinoma and displasia as order treatments like cryotherapy and 5-fluorouracil , but is also preferred for sites of for healing like the poor leg , or where cosmetic outcome is very important thanks to the selectivity of treatment.
Radiotherapy and Grenz
Radiotherapy may be employed for several skin conditions, including non-melanoma carcinoma or lentigo maligna that’s not suitable for surgery, but its use in dermatology has declined. scarring and poikiloderma can occur at treatment sites, although these are minimised if fractionated regimens are chosen-Superfical radiotherapy is now rarely employed to treat benign dermatoses Even more superficial ionising radiation (grenz , or Bucky, rays ) are often useful for localised dermatoses that are having severe effects on quality of life , if conventional treatment are inadequate; as an example, it’s going to avoid exposure to the risks of sys-temic therapy for a patient with severe and hitherto unresponsive scalp psoriasis.